Eye Iris and Retina Scanner: How the Technology Works

Eye Iris And Retina Scanner: How The Technology Works

Eye Iris and Retina Scanner: How the Technology Works
Eye Iris and Retina Scanner: How the Technology Works

Iris and Retina Scanners are a remarkable innovation in biometric authentication system to identify one's identity. In this technology, identity can be identified and verified through the iris of a person's eye.

Currently, this technology is being used in CCTV cameras, smartphones and other security devices. Its use has increased especially after the advent of artificial intelligence technology. Iris scanner technology has reduced the errors that used to occur while identifying human facial structure in biometric methods.

Earlier retina identification technology was used to verify or identify identity through eyes. From there gradually evolved iris biometric identification. In 1936, an ophthalmologist named Frank Burke first proposed the use of this technology. He said, every person's eye iris is different. Considering the law of probability, it is absolutely impossible for two people to have the same iris.

Later, scientists conducted several studies and found that even though the human retina changes with age, the iris of the eye always remains the same. Even the irises of twins are different. Therefore, through this, identity verification is possible with much more certainty.

There is no problem with iris scanning even with glasses or colored contact lenses. Again, the iris remains unchanged after various eye operations like cataract extraction, cornea transplant. Iris detection technology also works for blind people. Simply put, iris identification is possible for anyone who has an iris.

The camera used for iris scanning can be set at a minimum distance of 10 cm to a maximum of 1 meter from the eye. Hearing the word scanning here may create a misconception in many people's minds. In fact, this scanning is nothing but taking pictures

The iris of the eye contains a unique complex pattern of multiple circles, which can be recognized by a computer. The software used for iris scanning takes 260 sample points of the iris image. On the other hand fingerprint identification uses only 60 to 70 sample points.

Usually new technology is very expensive. But now several companies are releasing low-cost iris authentication technology in the market. Iris is expected to become the most popular medium for biometric identification in a very short time.

How Iris Scanner Works

The scanner must first understand the pattern of the iris for identification. The iris pattern is then verified through software identification. The iris scanner basically works in two steps:

• Step 1: Photograph the eye

A photograph of the eye is taken to input the iris pattern to the software. Both normal light and infrared rays are used to take pictures. However, night vision devices require more infrared light. Infrared rays, which have a slightly longer wavelength than normal light, can take better pictures in low light. So those who have dark irises, their pictures are not good in normal light, but it is not a problem.

The software then analyzes the images taken under these two types of light. After analysis, the parts of the image that are not useful, such as eyelids, are first removed. 240 features of the iris pattern are then highlighted. The number of feature points is 5 times more than normal fingerprint recognition.

These unique features of the iris are then coded to generate a number of 512 digits. This is called iris code. This code is saved along with the eye owner's name and other information in a computer database. This entire process is automated and takes no more than a few minutes.

• Second step: Iris detection of eye

Iris identification is a very simple task once the iris code is recorded in the database. Later, whenever a person named in the record stands in front of the iris scanner, the software re-images their eyes and generates an iris code. This new code is then compared with the previous database.

Cross-checking requires matching thousands to millions of codes. If the code matches, then identification is successful. If it doesn't match, it means that maybe the wrong person is trying to intrude or someone is trying to hack.
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